Evidence base and instructions

Here you will find detailed instructions , external validation studies, and peer-reviewed publications about PADs.

US Pharmacopeia's Technology Review Program Report on Paper Analytical Devices

                  Click here to download report (PDF 1 MB)

PAD Manual 2022: Screening medicine quality with the Paper Analytical Device (PAD) and the Android phone app

Research bibliography  (email mlieberm@nd.edu to request a pdf of any publication behind a pay wall)

Hayes, K.L., Lieberman, M. Considerations for the design and implementation of point-of-care technology for use in low- and middle-income countriesNat Rev Methods Primers 3, 8 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43586-023-00197-z


Bis[N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-4-piperazine-1-carboxamide] tetrakis(isothiocyanato) cobalt(II), a model compound for the blue color developed in the Scott test, Allen G. Oliver, Tracy-Lynn E. Lockwood, Jessica Zinna and Marya Lieberman, (2023). Acta Cryst. E79, https://doi.org/10.1107/ S2056989023000981.  (explanation of the cobalt thiocyanate test on the PAD!)

Discrimination of Substandard and Falsified Formulations from Genuine Pharmaceuticals Using NIR Spectra and Machine Learning, Olatunde Awosiji Awotunde,* Nicholas Roseboom, … Jin Cai, … Kathleen Hayes,* Revati Rajani, Ruoyan Chen, Abdullah Yusef, Marya Lieberman, 2022, Analytical Chemistry, 94, 37, 12586–12594, DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.2c00998 (this is about NIR data analysis, not about PADs, but will be of interest for screening pharmaceuticals)

Securing the Chain of Custody and Integrity of Data in a Global North-South Partnership to Monitor the Quality of Essential Medicines. Hayes, K., Meyers, N., Sweet, C., Ashenef, A., Johann, T., Lieberman, M., & Kochalko, D.  (2022). Blockchain in Healthcare Today5(S1). https://doi.org/10.30953/bhty.v5.230. (describes the VERIFY system for tracking sample provenance and results)

Rapid, instrument-free colorimetric quantification of DNA using Nile Blue,” Heather D. Whitehead and Marya Lieberman. Analytical Methods, (2022) 14, 574 - 580, DOI: 10.1039/D1AY01598B

Inquiry-Based Laboratories Using Paper Microfluidic Devices,” Rachel M. Roller*, Saichon Sumantakul*, Michelle Tran*, Andrea Van Wyk*, Jessica Zinna*, Destiny A. Donelson…, Sarah G. Finnegan…, Gregory Foley…, Olivia R. Frechette…, Jessica Gaetgens…, Jiani Jiang…, Katheryn C. Rinaolo…, Renée S. Cole, Marya Lieberman, Vincent T. Remcho, and Kimberley A. Frederick, J. Chem. Educ. 2021, 98, 6, 1946–1953, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.1c00214

Cost savings of paper analytical devices (PADs) to detect substandard and falsified antibiotics: Kenya case study, Hui-Han Chen , Colleen Higgins, Sarah Laing ,
Sarah Bliese , Marya Lieberman and Sachiko Ozawa, Medicine Access@Point of Care, 2021, 5, 1–11

Involving Students in the Distributed Pharmaceutical Analysis Laboratory: A Citizen-Science Project to Evaluate Global Medicine Quality.  Sarah L. Bliese,* Margaret Berta,… and Marya Lieberman. J. Chem. Educ. 2020, 97, 11, 3976–3983, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00904


“Scentsor”: A Whole-Cell Yeast Biosensor with an Olfactory Reporter for Low-Cost and Equipment-Free Detection of Pharmaceuticals.  Rachel A. Miller,* Seryeong Lee, … Ethan J. Fridmanski, … Elsa Barron,* Julia T. Pence,* Marya Lieberman, and Holly V. Goodson.  ACS Sens., 2020, 5, 10, 3025–3030 • DOI: 10.1021/acssensors.0c01344

idPAD: Paper Analytical Device for Presumptive Identification of Illicit Drugs,, Lockwood, T.-L. E.; Leong, T. X.; Bliese, S. L.; Helmke, A.; Richard, A.; Merga, G.; Rorabeck, J.; Lieberman, M... Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2020, 65(4):1289-1297

Enzyme-based paper test for detection of lactose in illicit drugs.  Jessica Zinna*, Tracy-Lynn Lockwood*, Marya Lieberman.  Analytical Methods 2020, 12, 1077-1084, https://doi.org/10.1039/C9AY02459J

Paper Millifluidics Lab: Using a Library of Color Tests to Find Adulterated Antibiotics  Sarah L. Bliese*, Deanna O’Donnell, Abigail A. Weaver, Marya Lieberman.  J. Chem. Ed. 2020   http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00433

Substandard cisplatin found while screening the quality of anti-cancer drugs from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  Madeline D. Smith Eberle*,  Ayenew Ashenef,  Heran Gerba, Patrick Loehrer, and Marya Lieberman. Journal of Global Oncology, 2020

Global access to quality-assured medical products: the Oxford Statement and call to action Newton, Paul N et al. The Lancet Global Health, 2019, 7(12), e1609 - e1611.  DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30426-7

Lab on Paper: Assay of Beta-Lactam Pharmaceuticals by Redox Titration.  N. M. Myers, M.W. Maina, P. M. Were, R. Karwa, S. D. Pastakia, J. C. Sharp, J. L. Luther, A. W. Cooper, S. L. Bliese, N. Oberhof, D. Aldulaimi and M. Lieberman, Anal. Methods, 2019, DOI: 10.1039/C9AY01547G.

Detection of Degraded, Adulterated, and Falsified Ceftriaxone Using Paper Analytical Devices, Sarah L. Bliese,  Mercy Wangechi Maina,  Phelix Makoto Were  and  Marya Lieberman, 2019, Analytical Methods, DOI: 10.1039/C9AY01489F

Paper Analytic Device to Detect the Presence of Four Chemotherapy Drugs, Madeline Smith, Ayenew Ashenef, and Marya Lieberman, 2018, Journal of Global Oncology, 4:1-10, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1200/JGO.18.00198, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30589597

Identification of substandard and counterfeit antimalarial pharmaceuticals chloroquine, doxycycline, and primaquine using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.  Tackman EC, Trujillo MJ, Lockwood T-L E, Merga G., Lieberman M, and Camden JP. Anal. Methods, 2018,10, 4718-4722

Amoxicillin Quality and Selling Practices in Urban Pharmacies and Drug Stores of Blantyre, Malawi.  Chikowe, Ibrahim; Bliese,  Sarah L.*; Lucas, Samuel…; and Lieberman, Marya.  Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 99(1) 233-238. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0003

Paper test card for detection of adulterated milk.  Luther, Jamie L. ], Henry deFreyhan, Valentine…, and Lieberman, Marya.  Analytical Methods, 2017, 9, 5674 - 5683.  DOI: 10.1039/c7ay01321c

Green design of a paper test card for urinary iodine analysis, Myers, Nicholas M. ]; Leung, Ivan C. …; McGee, Sean W. …; Eggleson, Kathleen; Lieberman, Marya. PLoS ONE  2017, 12(6) e0179716.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179716.

A new analytical tool (saltPAD) for monitoring salt iodization in low resource settings, 2016, N. Myers, E. Strydom, J. Sweet, C. Sweet, M. A. Dhansay,  R. Spohrer, M. Lieberman, NanoBiomedicine  3:5 | doi: 10.5772/62919

Visual Recognition of Paper Analytical Device Images for Detection of Falsified Pharmaceuticals, S. Bannerjee, J. Sweet, M. Lieberman, P. Flynn, and C. Sweet, 2015, accepted for WACV 2016: IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, March 7-9, Lake Placid NY. 

"Enabling the development and deployment of next generation  point-of-care diagnostics,"  Ratmir Derda, Jesse Gitaka, Catherine M. Klapperich, Charles R. Mace, Ashok A. Kumar, Marya Lieberman, Jacqueline C. Linnes, Joerg Jores, Johnson Nasimolo, Joseph Ndung’u, Evans Taracha, Abigail Weaver*, Douglas B. Weibel, Thomas M. Kariuki, and Paul Yager, 2015, PLOS Neg. Trop. Dis. Published: May 14, 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003676

"Part per million quantification of iodate in fortified salt using a paper device," N. M. Myers, Emalee Kernisan…, and M. Lieberman, Anal. Chem. 2015, 87, 3764-3770. DOI: 10.1021/ac504269q, pay wall

"Paper test cards for presumptive detection of very low quality anti-malarial medications," A. Weaver, M. Lieberman, Am J Trop Med Hyg Published online April 20, 2015; doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0384

"Incorporating yeast biosensors into paper-based analytical tools for pharmaceutical analysis," Weaver, A.;  Halweg, S. …;  Joyce, M.;  Lieberman, M.;  Goodson, H.,  Anal. Bioanal. Chem 2014, DOI 10.1007/s00216-014-8280-z

"Paper analytical devices for fast field screening of beta lactam antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis pharmaceuticals"  A. Weaver, H. Reiser…, T. Barstis, M. Benvenuti…, D. Ghosh, M. Hunkler…, B. Joy, L. Koenig…, K. Raddell…, M. Lieberman, Analytical Chemistry,  2013, 85 (13), 6453–6460 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac400989p, pay wall

Other publications (conference)

  •  "Lab-on-paper developed to monitor iodized salt," N. Myers, M. Lieberman,  ICCIDD newsletter May 2014

  • "Paper analytical devices for detection of low-quality pharmaceuticals," A. Weaver* and M. Lieberman,  Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014, Vol. 8976 89760H-1

  • "Catching the counterfeits," E. Bajema, T. Barstis, and M. Lieberman, Chemistry & Industry, 77: 28–30.  2013 doi: 10.1002/cind.7701_6.x

  • “Bounded Crowd Sourcing: A twist on open crowd sourcing offers promise for global health efforts,” M. Lieberman, E. Michael, and J. Bock, Monday Developments (a monthly magazine of in-depth news and commentary on global trends that affect relief, refugee, and development work as a service to U.S. humanitarian organizations), July 2011, 29(9), 27-28.

Video from Kenya's Daily Nation newspaper, Feb. 10, 2016